A garden is an organized space, usually on a plot of land, intended for the display, production, or enjoyment of various species of flora and other living creatures, as an ideal place for solitary or social life. The single most distinguishing characteristic identifying even the most savage wild garden is control over natural processes. Man has not been capable of dominating the earth’s ecosystem since his arrival, so a garden which he cannot dominate is, by and large, the product of a collectively decided process. Thus man’s tamed animals and plants are the result of his having determined them.
Landscape architecture is the arrangement of elements within buildings and other permanent structures to maximize the beauty and functionality of the space occupied by the structure. The arrangement of buildings and structures in a landscape can be viewed as the construction of cities, highways, streets, pathways, parks, plazas, etc., whereas landscape gardening is the aesthetic use of these same elements in order to beautify the built environment. The two concepts are closely related, and often an attractive garden combines a number of simple, modular design elements with sophisticated functionality. In actual fact, landscape architecture is more than just a blueprint for constructing a beautiful house.
Landscape gardening is based upon the need to manipulate natural processes in order to create aesthetically attractive and useful gardens. As the organic matter that forms the basis of most gardens is ultimately composed of living matter, the manipulation of the conditions of the soil and of the microclimates of the plants is central to landscape gardening. The physical structures that support the plants are typically constructed of stone or cement. The materials used for construction must be weather resistant, so that the garden is not dependent on costly masonry or wooden structures to survive.
Landscape architecture therefore encompasses the application of technical knowledge into the arrangement of plants, stones, soil, and vegetation in order to create a garden that has visual appeal and practical functionality. It also takes into consideration the relationship between the physical structures and their relation to one another. The arrangement of different plant species can be based on how best to shade or attract certain species. Certain types of plants may have greater resistance to sun damage than others. The types of trees that are chosen for the garden design should also take into account how they will impact the surrounding landscape and the availability of water and nutrients. All of these considerations and the interplay of the different landscape materials and plants create the garden that is being designed.
A garden path is generally a used path in the garden, and it often follows a major road or driveway. Most garden paths were originally created by old German farmers who made their living by selling fresh fruit and vegetables at markets that became increasingly popular throughout Germany during the Middle Ages. At this time, new methods of planting and weeding were developed, and the method of using the common fork from a spade to plant the crops was introduced. This method of garden path was often paved with stone, and as a result, has become known as the old high German stone.
Old high German rock gardens were quite impressive, and their designs included using large beds of pea gravel, which would then be divided into smaller units of different heights. These units of varying heights were then lined with bluestone, which was then laid upon the gravel in small sections. Each row of bluestone had a bench beneath it, which was used to sit down and rest while working in the garden. While there are many forms of modern-day rock garden design, many homeowners choose to create their own designs by selecting plants that grow well together and then lay the rock garden in a layout that is pleasing to the eye. Many people use perennials such as marigolds and honeysuckle for their various flower beds and cool-season grasses.