Plumbing is any underground system that carries liquids for various uses. Basically, plumbing utilizes pipes, pumps, plumbing fixtures, valves, and other apparatuses for carrying liquids. Different types of plumbing include private right of way, public utility plumbing, gravity fed and fixed plumbing. Regardless of what type of plumbing system you use, you need qualified plumbers to install, repair, or maintain the system.
Public plumbing systems are usually man-made through the employment of certain materials such as PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipes and fixtures or copper pipes and fixtures. The installation of these materials are done by trained and certified plumbers. These pipes and fixtures are insulated to protect against the growth of harmful bacteria and to prevent leaks from occurring. For example, leak detection equipment is used to detect leaks in water pipes.
Private right of way pipes are usually laid underground in walls, trenches, private drives or in private sewers. These pipes carry waste water from a plant or industrial establishment and transport it to the drainage system. Sewerage treatment plants are responsible for cleaning and drying the water pipes and for pumping out any excess water that runs through the pipes. A typical drainage system has three sections: a supply system, collection system, and discharge system. The supply system carries the water from the household or commercial establishment where it is used; the collection system collects water from the supply system and transported it to the drain field; and the discharge system disposes of the water through toilets, sinks, showers, and laundry facilities.
Solid and waste disposal plumbing systems are installed in residential homes, businesses, government buildings, and institutions. It is usually part of the sewage treatment plant. In some countries, septic tanks are installed outside commercial establishments to dispose of waste water generated by domestic plumbing systems. These waste disposal pipes may be solid, liquid or gases. Normally, solid waste is disposed of in a covered container and the gas pipes are laid inside the tank for convenient storage.
There are different types of plumbing fixtures that are needed for different types of establishments. Closed systems, open systems, public sewers, and private waste systems require different plumbing fixtures. Closed systems include those systems that prevent the flow of water in the fixture and those that prevent the escape of solid wastes from the fixtures. Public sewers carry waste water from the homes and business premises to the drainage system for disposal.
For solid wastes, the best option would be the closed systems where the exit of solid wastes is controlled to prevent the exit of dangerous substances. Closed plumbing fixtures include drainpipes, waste trap, vent pipes, traps, vents, and aerators. For waste disposal, a closed system would include a waste disposal tank, vent pipes, a sump pump and a drainpipe or trap.